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TETRAHYDRO CANNABINOL

Understanding THC

Pharmacokintics

THC is metabolized mainly to 11-OH-THC by the body. This metabolite is still psychoactive and is further oxidized to 11-nor-9-carboxy-THC (THC-COOH). In humans and animals, more than 100 metabolites could be identified, but 11-OH-THC and THC-COOH are the dominating metabolites.[27]Metabolism occurs mainly in the liver by cytochrome P450 enzymes CYP2C9CYP2C19, and CYP3A4.[28] More than 55% of THC is excreted in the feces and ≈20% in the urine. The main metabolite in urine is the ester of glucuronic acid and THC-COOH and free THC-COOH. In the feces, mainly 11-OH-THC was detected.[29]

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CANNABIDIOL

Understanding CBD

Pharmacodynamics

Cannabidiol has low affinity for the cannabinoid CB1 and CB2 receptors,[31][32] although it can act as an antagonist of CB1/CB2 agonists despite this low affinity.[32] Cannabidiol may be an antagonist of GPR55, a G protein-coupled receptor and putative cannabinoid receptor that is expressed in the caudate nucleus and putamen in the brain.[33] It also may act as an inverse agonist of GPR3GPR6, and GPR12.[34] CBD has been shown to act as a serotonin 5-HT1A receptor partial agonist.[35] It is an allosteric modulator of the μ- and δ-opioid receptors as well.[36] The pharmacological effects of CBD may involve PPARγ agonism and intracellular calcium release.[7]

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